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This is why two legged animals are outsmarted by four legged

THE fastest human is capable to run between 30 and 46 miles per hour, ostriches are created with a unique body for running.

They have special and flexible temperature control mechanism which is used during action by the bird through a naked skin of the upper legs to release heat and protect strong muscles against overheating when it reaches 40 centigrade.

The ostrich has a special mechanism which work as a thermo regulator to maintain its body temperature, the largest bird on Earth utilizes its respiratory system via a costal pump for ventilation rather than a diaphragmatic pump as seen in most mammals such as cheetah.

Unlike other birds, the morphology of the ostrich lung indicates that the bird’s structure was designed from a primitive avian species because they have a good opening to the respiratory pathway which works with ten different air sacs attached to the lungs.

On their tails ostriches have about 50 to 60 long feathers which work in conjunction with about 16 others on each 90 centimeters long wings which span for 2 meters to create balance while the bird is going for an attack or running speedy from a predator such as lion, leopard or cheetah.

From Ngorongoro, Serengeti, Tarangire, Mkomazi to Mikumi and Ruaha this achievement makes it to sprint as fast as 70 kilometers per hour and hold a steady speed of 50 kilometers which after few seconds it will outrun a fastest sprinter on the tracks of Commonwealths or Olympic Games.

This is a biological advantage which scientists say that with two legs, to achieve this extraordinary speed, this avian’s body was created to perform some extra duties to carry, push, pull and maintain balance from a small head on long neck without losing its asymmetric gaits.

Like mammals such as cheetah and domestic dogs, the ostrich’s lungs contain a good number of cells which are specialized on internal gas exchange, scientists say this is an adaptation for preventing lung collapse during slight volume changes.

With an average weight of 46.5 kilograms the Cheetah prefers a prey which weighs between 23 to 56 kilograms, the spotted cat sprints like nobody on the land thanks to its long and flexible legs which are able to be stretched up to minimum of four meters for a single leap, from one point to another the overstretched legs which are powered by efficiently muscle is capable of a wider leap measuring up 7.6 meter which after 3 seconds enables the cheetah to bust into a top speed on land of 120 kilometers per hour.

When talking speed in relation with the cheetah, some scientists prefer to use the word bust because during the typical chase and at time when the spotted cat reaches top speed, its body stays longer on air than on the ground. Among mammals of savannah, the speed of cheetah is an energy demanding pace which needs a powerful and flexible respiratory lungs system.

The cheetah is equipped with an efficient Nervous system which control requirement of oxygen as the source of energy to any living organism, the system works in conjunction with a mechanism called Chemoreceptors which detect level of body chemicals with high elements of carbon and trigger the inhalation to pump in of fresh air.

When the cheetah is in a resting position the rate of inhalation is 60 per one minute but it will go three time higher up 150 per minute when chasing a prey. The cat achieves these rapid changes are achieved due to the flexibility and strength of Diaphragm which powers its large lungs to breaths out carbon and inhale oxygen.

When cheetah breaths in, the diaphragm contract to allow a quick expansion of ribs which apply pressure to create a vacuum for fresh air. This is achieved rapidly because the cat has a deep chest which allow bigger room for gas exchange which is enabled by a narrow waist.

The efficiency of cheetah’s respiratory system is built on wide nostrils which allow a large amount of fresh air to pass into the lungs, before reaching the lungs on the fore head there are four chambers which reserves the accumulated air before allowing a smooth inhalation according to requirement.

These chambers are called Paranasal sinuses, located two in each side of the forehead and works to worm and moisturize the air for a quick inhalation. The chambers also remove unwanted particles such as dusts and fine stone which are being thrown on its way as the cheetah is chasing a speedy antelope.

From the chambers, fresh air passes through larynx a pipe which is built with strong muscle to carry oxygen to internal organs of the cheetah, these include the trachea divided into two smaller branches which transport the fresh air through smaller pipes which discharge it to the lungs.

Just like into other mammalian body, the lungs work as air cleaners into the cheetahs body as it remove fine particles which managed to escape from the air chamber or Paranasal sinuses, inside cheetah’s body, the deoxygenated blood from the heart passes through Pulmonary artery which also filters it through Pulmonary veins which carry fresh air to heart where the distribution system starts.

The efficiency of blood circulation inside cheetah’s body depends on the strength of its heart which is able to pump the precious liquid into different parts according to time and requirements.

This enables the system to deliver blood full of oxygen and other nutritious materials to the muscles which stretch to achieve the longest leap in the savannah, scientists say these achievements depend on the flexibility of muscles which built the body of a cheetah.

These muscles work through Anaerobic system which helps the body of a cheetah to remove all unwanted materials in a unique way, this is achieved quickly because its muscles are built to use a small amount of oxygen to gives its body a special flexibility over and above many other animals of the savannah.

The muscles depend on the flexibility of the heartbeats which change from 120 to 170 beats per minute when the cheetah is resting to 200 to 250 beets when it’s chasing an agile gazelle, the heartbeats produce high temperature which is a result of production of energy and its consumption within the body.

This energy enables the cheetah to sprint in a flash speed which covers a distance of more than 457.2 meters where it captures most of its prey, as a super predator, the cheetah prefer to hunt mammalian herbivores which weigh below 40 kilograms, this is a unique desire which makes an agile Thomson’s gazelle its prime target.

When a gazelle manage to outsmart the cheetah for more than 548.64 meters the cat will be forced to abandon the chase to cool its body, cheetah is a predator which hunts its prey after spotting them from 10 to 30 meters away before embarking in one minute chase for kill.

Cheetah is an athlete which is equipped with special mechanism which is able to absorb temperature before it goes above 40.5 °C or 104.9 °F when the cat is within 375 meter of the chase, this is a skillful sprinter which knows if it pushes on the chase it will fall down and slip into a sudden death because of exhausting its body from unbearable limit.

Among all big cats, it is the cheetah which shows the real usage of the tail, the spotted cat sprints like nobody on the land thanks to its long and flexible legs which are able to be stretched up to minimum of four meters in a single leap.

From one point to another the overstretched legs which are powered efficiently muscle for a wide leap measuring up 7.6 meter, these are one of most extended leaps on the land which propels the cheetah to the top speed of 120 per hour after the cat jump forward not less than three times.

To escape death from deadly jaws of cheetah, some antelopes of the savannah have developed different tactics which have enable them to lead good life alongside their greatest enemies, with top speed of 70 kilometers per hour Thomson’s gazelle have managed to apply additional techniques to counter attack from this predator with speed of 120 kilometers per hour.

Unlike other antelopes, with an average weight of 23.75 kilograms Thomson’s gazelles have developed some mathematical tactics to outclass its major enemy in a short and fastest chase on land.

Miraculously in the savannah Thomson’s gazelle use mathematics to calculate the pace of a cheetah which is running for it as a meal for a hungry stricken stomach, sometime a Tommie may be found in difficult position where all escaping doors are closed and the enemy is approaching very fast from not less than 40 meters away.

In a clinical and well calculated move, a Thomson’s gazelle may get away from a cheetah at minimum speed of 64 kilometers per hour while leaping more than 2 meter into the air, with fear in mind, while under severe pressure of a sprinting predator a Thomson’s gazelle will apply a zigzag formula to counter check the speed of a hungry cheetah.

A straight line makes itself to be more prone to the attack from a speedy predator but well calculated zigzag patterns of running will mislead the cheetah after few seconds.

Thomson’s gazelles are gifted with special ability of running while making turns with small or sharp corners at variable angles which outsmart a fast galloping cheetah and this small antelope of savannah will make will maintain the tactical zigzag running patterns at a speed ranging from 80 to 96 kilometers per hour.

With ability of maintaining a top speed of 64 kilometers per hour for more than 500 meters basically these zigzag running patterns helps the Thomson’s gazelle to outsmart the cheetah after 400 meters. rstanslaus@yahoo.com

FROM the beginning of time to present days, singers, ...

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Author: Reginald Stanislaus Matillya

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